Constructed in a record time of 4 years. is a fully reporting, next-generation agricultural biotechnology public company commercializing technologies initially developed for use by NASA astronauts to grow fresh, robust and nutrient-dense food crops in space. Maintenance cost of gravity dams is very small. Advantage of a gravity dam is that every section will be stable and reliable. Comparing with the advantage of the dam, people focus more on the disadvantages of Three The Three Gorges Dam project construction has brought different advantages and disadvantages and. Thus the load on the cantilever wall is reduced in arch dam as compared to that of the gravity dam. Neighbouring countries like Kenya, Sudan, Eritrea and South Sudan also suffer from electricity shortages. It is 1,310 feet long, and contains 22 vertical lift gates, each 50 feet by 51 feet. The approach is applied to a case study dam, the Outardes-3 Dam, an 80 m tall concrete gravity dam located in northeastern Canada. Renewable source of energy. Gravity Dam ADVANTAGES • External forces are resisted by weight of dam • More strong and stable • Can be used as overflow dams also with spillway feature • Highest dams can be made as gravity dams cuz of its high stability • Specially suited for heavy downpour; slopes of earthen dams might get washed away • Less maintenance required • Gravity dam does not fail suddenly but earthen dams. Another notable Canadian dam is the W. The main advantages of gravity dam are, it is simple to design, it can be constructed upto any height, failure of gravity dam gives sufficient warning and moreover it requires least maintenance. Its lake, Lac des Dix, can hold up to 400 billion litres of water. With the arched dam, the pressure of the water is transmitted laterally through the horizontal sections to the abutments (side hills). Gravity dams provide some advantages over embankment dams, the main advantage being that they can tolerate minor over-topping flows without damage, as the concrete is resistant to scouring. They can be constructed for very large heights. List the principal advantages and disadvantages of gravity, arch and buttress dams, and give an indication of where each type may be used. Women are benefited, as water for bathing, washing clothes and for animals is available near the house. Structure Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. The purpose of Anzalduas Dam is to divert the U. 3 The Fenves-Chopra refined pseudo-static method 16. # = It has been reported that tens of thousands died in this disaster which involved the failure of a number of dams, of which Banqiao was the largest. It is the highest gravity dam in the United States, and also the highest gravity dam without longitudinal joint in the world. 3 Gravity dams on rock foundations 16. This work focuses on the cutting edge of RCC design technology, describing the costs & benefits of a variety of technical approaches, & offering an extensive. The main dam is a 276-foot-high arch-gravity dam. Dams have many functions: to divert and control a water supply. Hoover Dam is located on the border between Arizona and Nevada. Situations When Arch Dam is a must to use. Basically, RCC construction offers economic advantages in all aspects of dam construction that are related to time. The dam has a structural volume of 1,700,000 m3 and a spillway capacity of 30,. Dating back to several decades ago, dams have also been a great reason for the production of electricity. states of Nevada and Arizona. Double-wall sheet piling coffer dams higher than 2. The $4bn (£3bn) gravity dam has been under construction near the Sudanese border since 2011, and is now more than half finished. gravity +‎ dam From using the weight of the dam to withstand the force of water being impounded. It serves as a guide to sound engineering practices in the design of concrete gravity dams and provides the technically trained, qualified design engineer with specialized and technical information that can be readily used in the design of such a dam. With the arched dam, the pressure of the water is transmitted laterally through the horizontal sections to the abutments (side hills). Earthen dams are preferred over the concrete gravity dam due to simple construction and relative economical advantage. Situated on the river Satluj, the bhakra nangal dam’s height is at 741 ft (226m), which makes it one of the highest gravity dams in the world. Gravity dams are designed so that each section of the dam is stable and independent of any other. Although gravity dams are triangular, they are modified on the top for useful purposes and some are curved with the curvature facing upstream. The advantages include generating power, controlling water flow to accomodate a human population's requirements, and creating a lake or resevoir where one is desired. Spill ways can be installed in the dam itself and no separate site for them is required. In Canada, there are more than 10 000 dams, with 933 categorized as being large dams. The design of RCC gravity dams is similar to conven-. Gravity dam: A gravity dam is constructed from concrete or stone masonry and has a triangular cross-section that is very wide at the bottom and narrower at the crest. Embankment Dams Like solid gravity dams, embankment dams resist water pressure by their weight and their cross sections are shaped like a triangle. In an impoundment facility, a dam is used to control the flow of water stored in a pool or reservoir. Dams form key structures for harnessing hydroele c- tric power, with all its advantages over other sources of la rge energy generation, as well as for control of floods. Hoover Dam is a large arch-gravity dam located on the border of the states of Nevada and Arizona on the Colorado River in its Black Canyon. A dam is a large wall or barrier that obstructs or stops the flow of water, forming a reservoir or a lake. † Pozmix A additive requires minimal mixing water and. 2 Gravity dams on soil foundations 16. 3 Modelling of the Longitudinal Profile ofCO:lcrete Gravity Dams 43 2. Raw water is pumped from the Etowah River. Dworshak is a gravity dam with the maximum height of 219 m and maximum bottom width of 152 m, the concrete volume is 525×10 4 m 3, and it is located at the northwest part of America in state of Iowa. List the principal advantages and disadvantages of gravity, arch and buttress dams, and give an indication of where each type may be used. The Caruachi Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP) on the Caroni River (Guayana, Venezuela) is a 240 feet high gravity concrete dam, and has a length at crest of 2,700 ft. 16 m (1700 feet) Width at top 9. 2 The Westergaard pseudo-static method 16. 2 Gravity dams on soil foundations 16. It’s why when you drop a pen, it falls to the ground. Advantages of dams Dams store water in reservoirs especially during monsoon when the water discharge in rivers is high and in this way they prevent floods. • 83 % of dams over 15m high are earth or rock embankments and 11% are concrete gravity dams. The reservoir was created in 1987 by the construction of a concrete gravity dam (Upper Stillwater. It has been written for engineers and owners engaged in the planning, design and construction of dam-related engineering projects anticipated to cost up to $100 million. provides support for responsible cost estimating for new dams and dam rehabilitation projects. Figure 1-1 Example of concrete Gravity dam Gravity dams are classified as "solid" or "hollow. It is shown that the conventional strength of materials-based design leads to large factors of safety when compared to the more recent and rational concepts of fracture mechanics. It would be especially cost effective if the climate of the area can provide enough precipitation to consistently keep a reservoir filled using rain water harvesting techniques. Masonry dams are typically used to block. A dam of the pure arch type is one relying solely upon the arched form for stability. Dam ConstructionDam Construction • First Dixence dam was built in 1929 • C i h d d i 1950Construction on the new dam started in 1950 – New dam submerged the old dam, but when water levels are low, the old dam can still be seen • 6 000 000 m6,000,000 m3 (7 847 703 yd(7,847,703 yd3) of concrete used) of concrete used • 10 years to complete. Is This Answer Correct ?. Large overtopping flows are still a problem, as they can scour the foundations if not accounted for in the design. Bhakra Dam is a solid concrete barrier that measures 740 feet top to bottom and 1,700 feet across the Sutlej River gorge in northern India. Ujjani Dam, Madha, India. The storage in the reservoir created behind the high concrete gravity dam is utilized for power generation by diversion through a water conductor system comprising a 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) long power tunnel, surge shaft and two lines of penstocks connected to the turbines installed in a surface power station for generation of 75 MW of power with two units of 37. Advantages of Dams- There are numerous benefits as they provide water for domestic use, industry, irrigation and in the hydroelectric power generation. The main advantage being that they can tolerate minor over-topping flows as the concrete is resistant to scouring. — FSHD, a new type of RCC dam with a shape between a gravity dam and CFRD, has good quality and some unique advantages such as high safety, strong earthquake resistance, low demands for foundation, simple and quick construction, low cast and small negative effects on the environment. 77 km: 7: Spillway gates. The Diamer Bhasha and Dasu dams will have a. It is 1,310 feet long, and contains 22 vertical lift gates, each 50 feet by 51 feet. In Alaska, the most common dam used for potable water is a concrete gravity dam less than 30 feet in height. The dam forms Lake Franklin D. more detailed introduction about the process of establishing safety monitoring index for high concrete gravity dams based on the failure mechanism of instability, and three grades of monitoring index related to di erent safety situations are established for this. The arch structure of the dam redirects the water pressure to the walls of the canyon and typically requires less material than other types of dams, whereas a gravity dam utilizes its sheer size to. Some Advantages of Dams are: Water Stored in dams are used for irrigation. Buttress Dam A buttress dam is also called as a hollow dam. Chambers or galleries for drainage, tubing and ancillary works can readily be housed within the dam body. At 6000MW, it aims to be the largest hydroelectric power plant in Africa and the seventh largest in the world. 1 (a) Sketch of a three-dimensional view of an earth dam (b) Earth dam and reservoir. Arch dam is proved most economical and efficient when the width of the canyon or valley to be spanned on the river is least. Hence, an arch dam requires less material and is, therefore, cheaper. Downstream flooding is reduced. The weight of the dam resists the horizontal thrust of water pushing against it, because of concrete. pdf), Text File (. History shows that several dams were failed and discharged the stored water which causes incalculable damage on life and property. The dam is operated by the U. About one out of four generate electricity. A gravity dam is a structure so proportioned that its own weight resists the forces exerted upon it. Earthen dams are usually not provided for heights more than 30 m or so. After completion, it will be Africa’s biggest hydroelectric power plant. One example was the dam at Ponti di San Mauro. by UĞUR ÖZ 11. A dam of the pure arch type is one relying solely upon the arched form for stability. A gravity dam is an enormous sized dam composed from concrete and stone masonry which are designed to retain large volumes of water. Later gravity dams used a trapezoidal cross section. What type of spillway is typically used with each of these dams?. 5 m, base width of 107. Many people experience body tremors symptoms when they are anxious and stressed. It is the second largest Dam in Asia. Keywords—Chromosomes, dam, genetic algorithm, global. Advantages: • most durable; • sustain some overtopping • more resistant to earthquake. Women are benefited, as water for bathing, washing clothes and for animals is available near the house. These dams are most permanent ones, requires little maintenance and is most commonly used. a dam of reinforced concrete or stone whose resistance to forces trying to move it is provided principally. They vary dramatically depending on the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk. List the principal advantages and disadvantages of gravity, arch and buttress dams, and give an indication of where each type may be used. Gravity essentially holds the dam down to the ground, stopping water from toppling it over. has rapid and economical. Hindustan Construction Company (HCC), in a joint venture with Hoisto Structures and Equipment (HSEPL), has been awarded the contract on engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) basis for construction of the concrete gravity dam and 8. Can be constructed to very great heights 4. Wilson Dam Wilson is a concrete gravity dam, meaning that it holds back the water entirely by its own weight. What type of spillway is typically used with each of these dams?. 25 M cu yd Concrete Structures at UMass. KEYWORDS: gravity dam, united form between plant and dam, anti-sliding stability, limit HUANG,A. Gravity dams provide some advantages over embankment dams. Suitable for moderately wide valleys having steep slopes 3. 2- Concrete Dam. They range in size from large dams such as Warragamba Dam down to small 2-3m high retarding basins (and even smaller onsite detention systems). Advantages of Hydropower: Hydropower is fueled by water, so it's a clean fuel source, meaning it won't pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas. In Alaska, the most common dam used for potable water is a concrete gravity dam less than 30 feet in height. 8 billion cubic feet of concrete to create the arch-gravity dam with a 600-foot-wide base, weighing 6. Dams play a vital role in the nation’s overall infrastructure. Dams Advantages. The dam is designed as a Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) gravity dam capitalizing on the numerous advantages associated with the RCC technology. Hindustan Construction Company (HCC), in a joint venture with Hoisto Structures and Equipment (HSEPL), has been awarded the contract on engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) basis for construction of the concrete gravity dam and 8. Firstly, three-dimensional finite element model is established, and then the subspace iterative method is used in the modal analysis of the gravity dam. The finding of the study shows that due to the check dams, there has been an improvement in the water table of the wells, intensity of irrigation, and yield rate of some major crops and cropping areas. Production purposes. These dam consists of two straight, parallel vertical walls of sheet piling, tied to each other and the space between walls filled with soil. Gravity dams are similar to embankment dams because they also use heavy weight and large size to exert enough force on the water, but gravity dams are made of concrete and considered more secure. provides support for responsible cost estimating for new dams and dam rehabilitation projects. Gravity dams provide some advantages over embankment dams. #Forces_on_Gravity_Dam_and_Dam_Analysis For purchase hand Written Classroom notes of Made Easy and Ace Engineering in low price contact on WhatsApp. 677 likes · 33 talking about this · 13,438 were here. The Fort Gibson Dam is a gravity dam on the Grand River in Oklahoma, 5. 08 lakh cubic meter concrete and 13 lakh cubic meters of hard rock excavation. Dams are a critical infrastructure system for many communities, but they are also one of the most challenging to inspect. Dam Safety Plan for USACE. Keywords—Chromosomes, dam, genetic algorithm, global. Concrete buttress dams Prep. Presentation on. Advantages of Hydropower: Hydropower is fueled by water, so it's a clean fuel source, meaning it won't pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas. The weight of the dam resists the horizontal thrust of water pushing against it, because of concrete. gravity dams as well as the evaluation of existing stock. It is located in an 8. These dams are most permanent ones, requires little maintenance and is most commonly used. • Buttress Dam - Is a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports. An impoundment dam that is wider at the base than at the top, and which uses the massive weight of the dam's mass to withstand the force of water being being stored. Here are the basic steps to building a gravity dam – the most common type of dam that we build. They are usually slightly curved in plan and rely on self weight to resist the hydrostatic forces that act upon it. What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the gravity dams over earth dams? Advantage of a gravity dam is that every section will be stable and reliable. In this paper, taking Koyna concrete gravity dam as the object of study, the dynamic response and damage distribution of the dam are obtained based on the concrete damage plastic constitutive model. behind California's. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams. • 83 % of dams over 15m high are earth or rock embankments and 11% are concrete gravity dams. In addition to their benefits, dams also have wide-ranging, long-term ecological and social consequences. A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by using the weight of the material alone to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against it. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. It is highly suitable in narrow valleys. Key words: Concrete gravity dam, Dam-reservoir-foundation interaction, dynamic response The advantages and disadvantages of dynamic load testing and statnamic load testing P. Dam infrastructure can be affected by natural hazards, man-made threats, as well as an imbalance between resources. A buttress dam is a specific type of gravity dam in which the large mass of concrete is reduced, and the water pressure forces are diverted to the dam foundation through vertical or sloping buttresses. Dams form key structures for harnessing hydroele c- tric power, with all its advantages over other sources of la rge energy generation, as well as for control of floods. gravity dams, such as the pioneering Knellpoort and Wolwedans dams in South Africa, concluded in 1988 and 1990, respectively. Working in partnership with Salamanca Group, the Sedgemoor District Council, and the highway authorities, we planned, designed, and secured approvals for a link road and green bridge that would support the new innovation campus in Somerset. Gravity fed irrigation By Pat Kendzierski. Gravity allows earth to retain its atmosphere. Borehole gravity is especially effective for the following exploration and production purposes: Exploration purposes. On the other hand, the arch dam holds the water because of its design features. Foremost among the world's gravity dams is the 285-meter-high (935-foot-high) Grande Dixence in Switzerland, completed in 1961. The advantages include generating power, controlling water flow to accomodate a human population's requirements, and creating a lake or resevoir where one is desired. Gravity dam stability analysis Failure of gravity dam occurs due to overturning, sliding, tension and The advantage of gravity dam is that its structure is most durable and solid and requires very less. The type of structure best suited to resist earthquake shocks without danger are earthen dams and concrete gravity dams. Eulerian method in reservoir modeling gives rise to a set of coupled equations, whereas in Lagrangian method, the same equations for dam and foundation structure are used. There is enough warning of the imminent failure. After completion, it will be Africa’s biggest hydroelectric power plant. The dam foundation was washed away on 14 April 1908 and a new concrete gravity dam was rebuilt from 1909 to 1912. Gravity dams are suitable in wide, low valleys with gently sloping sides. Dam - Dam - The modern dam: Most modern dams are of two basic types: masonry (concrete) gravity designs and embankment (earthfill or rockfill) designs. Gravity current and dam-break flows, resulting from the instantaneous release of fluid initially at rest behind a lock gate, are modelled theoretically using the shallow water equations. Just a one hour drive from Sydney's CBD, the dam is a popular place to visit and picnic. 0m and the elevation of dam crest is 2610m. Basically, RCC construction offers economic advantages in all aspects of dam construction that are related to time. Gravity dams are very durable and still highly preferred over buttress dams and arch dams (About Dams, 2008). Yet, in the same breath dams are the subject of notable and significant national. Although gravity dams are triangular, they are modified on the top for useful purposes and some are curved with the curvature facing upstream. a dam designed for raising the water level of rivers or for creating a reservoir; it permits the overflow of water during the passage of excess (flash-flood) discharges over the entire length of the dam crest or through drain openings. Situated on the river Satluj, the bhakra nangal dam’s height is at 741 ft (226m), which makes it one of the highest gravity dams in the world. Weight of Dam. A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by using the weight of the material alone to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against it. 4 Cross-sectionof the Model Structure 43 2. Romain Grosjean will stay on with DAMS for the Monza GP2 races, and has signed up with Renault Formula 1 team co-owner Gerard Lopez's Gravity Sport Management organisation. What type of spillway is typically used with each of these dams?. Gravity essentially holds the dam down to the ground, stopping water from toppling it over. In optimum dam cross section, the ratio of is dam base to dam height is almost equal to 0. 54 billion tons of water. What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the gravity dams over earth dams? Advantage of a gravity dam is that every section will be stable and reliable. Concrete is most commonly used material to construct a dam. Building of the arch-gravity dam started in early 1931, and construction of the dam was completed on March 1, 1936, 2 years earlier than the scheduled date of completion. Keywords: Concrete gravity dams; Stability analysis; Computer aided design; Gravity method Cþþ rated tops in speed and size efficiency in many cases. The benefits of building a dam are not just limited to this fact alone. Disadvantages. ) a) Spillway and Gates [6 Lectures]. Thus the benefit-cost ratio of such a dam is always higher. 75 MAF) 6: Length of reservoir Maximum width Average Width: 214. Facts About Wilson Dam • Wilson Dam was built between 1918 and 1925, a concrete gravity dam on a blue limestone rock foundation. Rainfall-triggered landslides have also struck parts of the mainland, especially in mountainous regions. The upstream face is vertical or slightly inclined, whereas the slope of the downstream face usually varies between 50° and 60°. Causes of failure of Gravity Dam 4. There is enough warning of the imminent failure. Length of main concrete gravity dam: 1210. The spillway is a concrete, gravity-type spillway dam. The main advantage being that they can tolerate minor over topping flows as the concrete is resistant to scouring. For a given height, the section of an arch dam is much lesser than a corresponding gravity dam. At 124m tall and 660m long, the structure holds back the waters of Lake Volta – the largest man-made lake in the world by surface area. There are about 45,000 large dams in the world. Dams have many functions: to divert and control a water supply. In 1932, the white concrete face of Mulholland Dam loomed above the town of Hollywood, holding back Lake Hollywood and its theoretical capacity of 7,500 acre-feet of water, or nearly 2. Since gravity dams must rely on their own weight to hold back water, it is necessary that they are built on a solid foundation of bedrock. Dams are built across streams and flow paths to safely catch, store and release stormwater flows. The top of nonoverflow section is EL. Chair: John Ritchey, P. The weight of the dam resists the horizontal thrust of water pushing against it, because of concrete. 400MW output. It is a dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of supports. 6Prevents 20 million tons per year of Carbon Dioxide from going into the atmosphere from other means of energy productions. There is enough warning of the imminent failure. At the time of construction, the steel dam design was significantly cheaper to build than masonry structures. 1 For the profile of a gravity dam shown in Fig. The total length of the structure is 4,541 feet, it is 137 feet high, and the maximum width at the base, including the apron, is 160 feet. Opening the dam for energy generation will make the cold and barely oxygenated water from the reservoir to rush into the rivers and suffocate the fish living there. 2 Inspection requirements 79 9. Basically, RCC construction offers economic advantages in all aspects of dam construction that are related to time. To control the flow of water over the structure, dams are often built with spillways. Types of Gravity Dam 2. Gravity dams provide some advantages over embankment dams. Low unit price: RCC materials are relatively cheap and flexible ratio of the mixture contents together with high construction speed make RCC dams a valuable alternative for different dam projects. Gravity dams provide some advantages over embankment dams. The Caruachi Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Caroni River (Guayana, Venezuela) is a 74-m high gravity concrete dam, and it has a length at crest of 809 meters. It has been written for engineers and owners engaged in the planning, design and construction of dam-related engineering projects anticipated to cost up to $100 million. Experiences at Spaulding Dams Three separate concrete dams form Pacific Gas and Electric Co. With taller opponents, you have the advantage that a smaller horizontal movement will bring their Being shorter, with a lower center of gravity, can give you an amazing advantage when you're trying. The shape of the gravity dam resembles a triangle. I was put on 50mg Levothyroxine in December, my T4 level was normal but had a just above normal TSH result. Dworshak Dam is a concrete gravity dam in the western United States, on the North Fork Clearwater River in Clearwater County, Idaho. Chair: John Ritchey, P. Willow Creek Dam will be the world’s first concrete gravity dam built completely by roller compaction methods. An impoundment dam that is wider at the base than at the top, and which uses the massive weight of the dam's mass to withstand the force of water being being stored. Borehole gravity is especially effective for the following exploration and production purposes: Exploration purposes. Click here Anna University Syllabus. GRAVITY DAM. The gravity dam does not fail suddenly. The crash for the gravity dam usually causes due to slid, the slippery stable is a key problem of big dam. The dam is founded on rock and is a conventional concrete gravity dam measuring nearly a 0. Indrani Gogoi. Owing to the perennial availability of water, many wild animals and birds flock to this area. Dams are impressive engineering achievements, providing countless ways to apply an understanding of science and math concepts (including potential and kinetic energy, Pascal's Law, water pressure, gravity, forces) to creating unique structures that provide many benefits to people. To many, the dam represented Ethiopia’s ambition to become the largest power exporter on the continent. Determining Foundation Strength Parameters a. The Three Gorges Dam had become a national goal for almost 80 years and was realised upon the dam’s completion in 2009. Advantages of Gravity Dams: There are some advantages of concrete dams described as following: 1. Powerhouses can be placed right at the top of the dam. A Guide to the Advantages and Disadvantages of Dams. Embankment dams can be constructed even on the alluvial deposit and pervious foundations. Willow Creek Dam will be the world’s first concrete gravity dam built completely by roller compaction methods. There is enough warning of the imminent failure. Taking advantage of equal safety coefficient method, Yang [3] established a mechanical model which considered lateral resistance in calculating the reliability index of a gravity dam's deep anti-sliding. Firstly, three-dimensional finite element model is established, and then the subspace iterative method is used in the modal analysis of the gravity dam. Constructed in a record time of 4 years. Example 16. The 285-metres-high Grande Dixence gravity dam in Switzerland, which was completed in 1961, is currently the world’s highest gravity dam. The Seven Mile project is located on the Pend d’Oreille River in the southeastern part of British Columbia. Gravity dams are usually straight in plan although sometimes they may be slightly curved. Horizontal wells are fairly inexpensive, spring water is relatively clean, and gravity flow may be acceptable. When dams are modified, the structural integrity and safety of the dam, both during and after the upgrade, is the first. These are the types of dams that are most familiar when considering hydroelectric power generation however. Situated on the river Satluj, the bhakra nangal dam’s height is at 741 ft (226m), which makes it one of the highest gravity dams in the world. Built between 1961 and 1964, the dam is 74 m tall and can be visited in summer. Key words: Concrete gravity dam, Dam-reservoir-foundation interaction, dynamic response The advantages and disadvantages of dynamic load testing and statnamic load testing P. What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the gravity dams over earth dams? Advantage of a gravity dam is that every section will be stable and reliable. It is the second-highest and the largest dam in India, featuring a height of 225 meters and length of 520 meters. New masonry dams, of both gravity and arch designs, are being built in India and China and in other lands where the cost of labor is low. But there are certain disadvantages. Double-wall sheet piling coffer dams higher than 2. When more energy is needed, water is released from the dam. 2- Concrete Dam. Large over-topping. It is built of masonry and held in place just by gravity. 1 Introduction 16. They are either the gravity or the arch - gravity type. к фразам | Google | Forvo | + curved | gravity dam. Owing to the perennial availability of water, many wild animals and birds flock to this area. The reservoir is 90 kilometers long spreading over total area of 168. Dams however provide a large water reservoir from which the flow of water, and hence the power output of the generator, can be controlled. The max dam height is 178m with the max bottom width of 80m. Dams form key structures for harnessing hydroele c- tric power, with all its advantages over other sources of la rge energy generation, as well as for control of floods. Hydroelectric power is a domestic source of energy, allowing each state to produce their own energy without being reliant on international fuel sources. The dam is designed as a Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) gravity dam capitalizing on the numerous advantages associated with the RCC technology. By 1934, the dam had vanished beneath some 300,000 yards of earth and the fast-growing trees planted in it. The fundamental principle is based on the hydraulic lifting of a large rock mass. It has been observed that the total cost of an earth dam, is roughly one-half of a concrete dam. A dam built to divert water from a waterway or stream into a different watercourse : Double curvature arch dam. It will be the first RCC Dam to be constructed in Kenya and East Africa and its construction is scheduled to commence at the beginning of 2019. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Dam Safety Plan for USACE. Cement mortar is used to join the masonry blocks. As an arch-gravity dam, the massive water pressure of up to 45,000 pounds per square foot at the base of Hoover Dam, is held back by gravity. They are usually slightly curved in plan and rely on self weight to resist the hydrostatic forces that act upon it. They were made of masonry or concrete that List of the Advantages of Dams. These are the types of dams that are most familiar when considering hydroelectric power generation however. Gravity dam stability analysis Failure of gravity dam occurs due to overturning, sliding, tension and The advantage of gravity dam is that its structure is most durable and solid and requires very less. The same report outline should be followed for other structures (mass gravity dams, pans, rock catchments, sand dams, sub-surface dams) but should be customised appropriately for the specific type of structure. 3 The Fenves-Chopra refined pseudo-static method 16. Abstract: Dynamic finite element analysis for a RCC gravity dam is implemented by using response spectrum method in this paper. For example, Quebec’s Robert-Bourassa dam is Canada’s most powerful hydroelectric dam. Necessity of irrigation advantages/disadvantages of irrigation. Dams are typically very large and complex structures, and the result is that. Grand Coulee Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U. 355m in length. Gravity essentially holds the dam down to the ground, stopping water from toppling it over. Also, the stiff nature of the gravity dam structure is unforgiving to differential foundation settlement; which can induce cracking of the dam structure. The advantages include generating power, controlling water flow to accomodate a human population's requirements, and creating a lake or resevoir where one is desired. It is constructed in the combination with gravity dam. Bhakra Nangal Dam has a length of 518. 3 Types of irrigation projects, data 3. The rigid dam which is constructed either with stone or brick masonry or mass concrete, is called a solid gravity dam. These dams hold back water by primarily using the weight of the material alone. Disadvantages. Building a large dam in most areas is a huge undertaking (often in more ways than one) -- and the numerous advantages and disadvantages of dams should always be considered beforehand in a detailed cost benefit analysis. The shape of the gravity dam resembles a triangle. Hoover Dam is a large arch-gravity dam located on the border of the states of Nevada and Arizona on the Colorado River in its Black Canyon. Basically, RCC construction offers economic advantages in all aspects of dam construction that are related to time. In addition 2, 50, 000 cu. As compared to earth and rock-fill dams gravity dams have the following advantages. Does not last as long as concrete dams Advantages of Fill Dams. This hydroelectric gravity dam takes the record as the largest power station in the world with the installed capacity of 22,500 MW. Earthen dams are preferred over the concrete gravity dam due to simple construction and relative economical advantage. Concrete gravity dam is a large structure which retains a very large amount of water on its upstream side and it is very crucial for a dam to survive against vibrations of. Facts About Wilson Dam • Wilson Dam was built between 1918 and 1925, a concrete gravity dam on a blue limestone rock foundation. Gravity current and dam-break flows, resulting from the instantaneous release of fluid initially at rest behind a lock gate, are modelled theoretically using the shallow water equations. gravity dam design calculations - Free ebook download as PDF File (. Another notable Canadian dam is the W. dam that was 11 miles long, 70 feet high, and contained approximately 17 million cubic yards of embankment was completed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the year 504 B. 1 AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI : : CHENNAI 600 025 REGULATIONS - 2008 VI TO VIII SEMESTERS AND ELECTIVES B. Gravity dams are suitable in wide, low valleys with gently sloping sides. The Australian Plus benefits; The Australian Three of the five called for more testing to determine the extent of problems with the roller-compacted concrete gravity dam — the biggest of its. An international team of scientists investigating the effects of six planned or potential Andean dams on the Amazon river system has found that major negative ecological impacts can be expected. Dams are structures whose purpose is to raise the water level on the The weight of gravity dam will cause a moment opposite to the overturning moment and the friction on the. Could you provide some feedback regarding the advantages of Gravity over Lua-based It would be interesting to understand why Gravity goes for its own VM and what advantages this VM provides. Bluestone Dam helps to reduce flood risks in the New and Kanawha River. [1] The reservoir feeding into the dam is 170 km in length and can hold approximately 29. The dam was constructed between the years of 1955 and 1967. Height of Dam. Gravity dam Definition: a dam whose weight alone is great enough to prevent it from tipping over | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele. They are either the gravity or the arch - gravity type. 00 m: 3: Top R. This work focuses on the cutting edge of RCC design technology, describing the costs & benefits of a variety of technical approaches, & offering an extensive. Hoover Dam is located on the border between Arizona and Nevada. Masonry dams are built using either stone masonry or brick masonry. Gravity dams are constructed from masonry or concrete. rates to Union Park Dam, construction of the main RCC gravity dam could be completed in approximately 560 days or 18 months. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Dam 2 (the main spillway dam) is a 42-foot-high gated gravity structure. China is heavily reliant on coal and the effects of this are experienced in several of the nation's major cities. behind California's. The dam is located on the North Fork Clearwater River at River Mile 1. The dam site is located 24-km North of Helena (Montana). This is most obvious in dams, or simple dykes. Locally available materials and less skills labor reduce the construction cost thus it is widely still used. Length of main concrete gravity dam: 1210. Man-made dams are typically classified according to thier structure, intended purpose or. 1 General 16. Examples of concrete dams can be found at the City of Craig and Port Alexander. And not only are the dam's sheer size and capacity impressive, so are its surroundings with several glaciers and 3000+ metre peaks. The computerized methodology may provide the help for computation of the optimal top width for a wide range of height of a gravity dam. List the principal advantages and disadvantages of gravity, arch and buttress dams, and give an indication of where each type may be used. Such dams offer great flexibility in height. The gravity dam does not fail suddenly. Credit: Spanish River Authority The European Commission's new biodiversity strategy is a potential game-changer for the continent's rivers—and for all the people and nature. Dam 3 is a 91-foot-high gravity buttress dam. 55 m (740 feet) Maximum Height of dam above river bed 167. behind California's. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest power. Concrete gravity dam X is mainly based on power generation, and has comprehensive benefits such as improved navigation conditions, flood control, irrigation, and sand interception. Advantages of Gravity Dam Advantages: 1. 4 Cross-sectionof the Model Structure 43 2. The winning bid was submitted by a consortium of six companies. There are numerous advantages of building a dam and that is the reason why a government invests so much money in the construction and maintenance of Dams. Bhakra is a "gravity" dam: the weight of the concrete in the structure provides the resistance necessary to contain the reservoir behind it. A gully is usually a good place to site a dam because it reduces the amount of earthworks and the overall cost. Bureau of Reclamation considerations and initial model study findings for the Upper Stillwater dam, Monksville dam, also in the USA, was the first RCC dam constructed with a stepped spillway. 8 Estimating capacity in a raised dam 75 9 Finishing works 77 9. Dam infrastructure can be affected by natural hazards, man-made threats, as well as an imbalance between resources. 70 m high) with power intakes in the present river channel near the right bank and a spillway on the left bank. Non-availability of the materials at or near the dam site. Another notable Canadian dam is the W. Working in partnership with Salamanca Group, the Sedgemoor District Council, and the highway authorities, we planned, designed, and secured approvals for a link road and green bridge that would support the new innovation campus in Somerset. The ogee spillway consists of two 36-foot wide bays each with a structural steel tainter gate. Romain Grosjean will stay on with DAMS for the Monza GP2 races, and has signed up with Renault Formula 1 team co-owner Gerard Lopez's Gravity Sport Management organisation. The type of structure best suited to resist earthquake shocks without danger are earthen dams and concrete gravity dams. There are about 45,000 large dams in the world. The dam is an early example of the government initiative of the early 1890s, allowing local councils to raise loans for water supply purposes The dam is one of the last of its size and type designed by the NSW Dept of Public Works as a gravity wall, prior to the general adoption of curved concrete walls for small dams. Over half are used exclusively for irrigating agricultural land. The storage in the reservoir created behind the high concrete gravity dam is utilized for power generation by diversion through a water conductor system comprising a 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) long power tunnel, surge shaft and two lines of penstocks connected to the turbines installed in a surface power station for generation of 75 MW of power with two units of 35 MW capacity each. advantages of speed and economy. 1 (a) Sketch of a three-dimensional view of an earth dam (b) Earth dam and reservoir. Reservoirs store water, especially during periods of prolonged or Disadvantages. Several researches disclosed that the methods used to design and re-evaluate concrete gravity dams after the 1970s have shown significant advancement. 878, Longitude= -83. Seven Mile Dam, Southern BC, Canada. Dam-It Dams portable cofferdams are made of a heavy-duty Geo-textile woven polypropylene outer casing that contains two side-by-side inner tubes. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed at different seismic IM levels and the fragility curves are derived with the multiple stripes analysis method ( Baker 2015 ). Resilient to erosion. Bureau of Reclamation. About one out of four generate electricity. Gravity Dam The gravity concrete dam is the most common of all concrete dams and is considered the safest (see fig 7). 2-square-mile drainage basin and impounds a 411-acre reservoir. by UĞUR ÖZ 11. Length of main concrete gravity dam: 1210. 2 m, crest length of 1066 m, maximum head 220 m, and a volume of. The mass weight of concrete and friction resist the reservoir water pressure. By trapping water behind a dam, we can increase the level of the water behind the dam, building up its potential energy. On 4th July 2012, the dam had its. 85, and ratio of dam top width to dam height is almost equal to 0. 1 Introduction 79 9. The storage in the reservoir created behind the high concrete gravity dam is utilized for power generation by diversion through a water conductor system comprising a 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) long power tunnel, surge shaft and two lines of penstocks connected to the turbines installed in a surface power station for generation of 75 MW of power with two units of 35 MW capacity each. A detailed sketch of a gravity dam is shown in Fig. And not only are the dam's sheer size and capacity impressive, so are its surroundings with several glaciers and 3000+ metre peaks. In addition 2, 50, 000 cu. Can be constructed to very great heights 4. The equivalent body of hydrodynamic forces, the "added mass" model, derived from the well-known Westergaard theory, is nowadays the most widespread approach still adopted in modern design codes. The Three Gorges Dam had become a national goal for almost 80 years and was realised upon the dam’s completion in 2009. But the hydropower boom is still reverberating through the rest of the world. Cement mortar is used to join the masonry blocks. Although these small advantages are. A concrete gravity dam is facing with a variety of failure mechanisms include dam sliding on the structure and foundation interaction surface and overturning. any dam between 5 and 15 metres in height with a reservoir volume of more than 3 million cubic metres. The gravity dam resists the water entirely by its own weight. Featuring a catchment area of 105 sq km, this dam is a vital source of electricity and yields substantial revenue for the state of Kerala. See full list on civilseek. gravity dam design calculations - Free ebook download as PDF File (. The primary purposes of the dam and lake are flood control and hydroelectric power production, although supply of drinking water to local communities, as well as recreation, are additional benefits. construction of concrete gravity and rockfill dams are also covered. Necessity of irrigation advantages/disadvantages of irrigation. GRAVITY DAM. 1 TWh in 2016. In the design of these structures, the following criteria should be satisfied: Dimensions of the dam are chosen such that only compressive stresses develop under all loading conditions. A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by using the For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Gravity dam. Failure to dissipate the water's energy can lead to scouring and erosion at the dam's toe (base). by UĞUR ÖZ 11. 4 mi north of the town of Fort Gibson. Many of these dams are located in places that are bordered by water such as Mississippi and Ohio. The Itaipu Dam. They are either the gravity or the arch - gravity type. 54 billion tons of water. The dam is a 90m high RCC gravity dam, with a crest length of 980 m and an RCC volume of approximately 900,000 m3. The maintenance cost of a gravity dam is very low. Fontana Dam, North Carolina Inspection, Maintenance and Repair On Monday, July 9, 2018, visitors to Fontana Dam were treated to a rare and beautiful site: a “rooster tail,” which is a large surge of water through two small spill pipes below the dam, along with all associated rainbows. o A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by primarily utilizing the weight of the material alone to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against it. 26 meters and it runs across 168. Masonry dams are typically used to block streams running through relatively narrow gorges, as in mountainous terrain; although the structures may be very high, the total amount of material required for such sites is limited. Basically, RCC construction offers economic advantages in all aspects of dam construction that are related to time. A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dam infrastructure can be affected by natural hazards, man-made threats, as well as an imbalance between resources. The dam will also provide flood protection to riverine reaches measuring 30,000 ha (74,000 acres) covering 210 villages and Bharuch city and a population of 400,000 in Gujarat. Dam Type of Dam Concrete straight gravity Elevation at Top of Dam El 518. The reservoir was created in 1987 by the construction of a concrete gravity dam (Upper Stillwater. Gravity dams are similar to embankment dams because they also use heavy weight and large size to exert enough force on the water, but gravity dams are made of concrete and considered more secure. The project has a straight concrete gravity dam with a structural height of 717 feet and a crest length of 3,287 feet at elevation 1,613 Mean Sea Level (MSL). A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by primarily utilising the weight of the material alone to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against it. A gravity dam is an enormous sized dam composed from concrete and stone masonry which are designed to retain large volumes of water. They contribute to the economic development of the United States and to the social welfare of the American public. Adding to the stability of the basic design, Griggs Dam is low, only about 35 feet high; nonetheless, the reservoir it impounds extends upstream for six miles, offering recreational fishing and sailing both then and now. It is the third largest reservoir in India. Related Images: dam narmada river hydraulic engineering project irrigation hydroelectric. Over half are used exclusively for irrigating agricultural land. 6Prevents 20 million tons per year of Carbon Dioxide from going into the atmosphere from other means of energy productions. Raising a dam in the way proposed for Warragamba Dam has been completed successfully and safely for other large concrete gravity dams internationally. An impoundment dam that is wider at the base than at the top, and which uses the massive weight of the dam's mass to withstand the force of water being being stored. 8 TWh in 2014. See full list on civilseek. Locating nearby salt structures. A gravity dam is a dam constructed from concrete or stone masonry and designed to hold back water by utilizing the weight of the material alone to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against it. The 285-metres-high Grande Dixence gravity dam in Switzerland, which was completed in 1961, is currently the world’s highest gravity dam. Dams are very expensive to build. Built of cut granite, the Ascutney Mill Dam was one of the first gravity-arch dams built in the United States, and possibly the oldest masonry dam of significant size. Embankment dams: Embankment dams are wide areas of compacted earth or rock fill with a concrete or masonry core that contains a reservoir, while allowing for some saturation and shifting of the earth around the dam, and of the dam within the earth. 00 m: 2: Maximum height above deepest foundation level: 163. Gravity dams are massive structure dam which is constructed of concrete or stone masonry. The water of the reservoir is used to generate hydroelectricity which is a main source of power generation across the world and in this way it illuminates the world. When dams are modified, the structural integrity and safety of the dam, both during and after the upgrade, is the first. 5 MW capacity each. A gravity dam built up of boxes, crossed timbers, or gabions, filled with earth or rock : Diversion dam. Sliding along the base of the dam is probably considered the most prevailing mode of failure for gravity dams (Ghanaat, 2004). Concrete gravity dams. Dams provide us with a source of clean energy. Low unit price: RCC materials are relatively cheap and flexible ratio of the mixture contents together with high construction speed make RCC dams a valuable alternative for different dam projects. Figure 1-1 Example of concrete Gravity dam Gravity dams are classified as "solid" or "hollow. Indrani Gogoi. Gravity current and dam-break flows, resulting from the instantaneous release of fluid initially at rest behind a lock gate, are modelled theoretically using the shallow water equations. In optimum dam cross section, the ratio of is dam base to dam height is almost equal to 0. 4 million barrels per day. The winning bid was submitted by a consortium of six companies. 5 billion gallons. dam by a wave 125 m high, but remarkably the dam survived. Eulerian method in reservoir modeling gives rise to a set of coupled equations, whereas in Lagrangian method, the same equations for dam and foundation structure are used. Dating back to several decades ago, dams have also been a great reason for the production of electricity. Gravity is a "constant force" which keeps things in place. Gravity dam can be constructed during all types of climatic conditions. Maintenance cost of gravity dams is very small. A Guide to the Advantages and Disadvantages of Dams. So far, the dam has earned 16000 crore Rupees. The computerized methodology may provide the help for computation of the optimal top width for a wide range of height of a gravity dam. The dam site is located 24-km North of Helena (Montana). Renewable source of energy. It is shown that the conventional strength of materials-based design leads to large factors of safety when compared to the more recent and rational concepts of fracture mechanics. The type of dam built in any given situation depends on factors such as the intended purpose, environmental considerations, available finances and the location. It has been observed that the total cost of an earth dam, is roughly one-half of a concrete dam. Gravity Dams - Advantages & Disadvantages. Header photo: The 285-metres-high Grande Dixence gravity dam in Switzerland, which was completed in 1961, is currently the world's highest gravity dam. An arch-gravity dam can be thinner than the pure gravity dam and requires less internal fill. 6Venezuela is one of top ten oil-producing countries in the World. Indrani Gogoi. It produces 98. The spillway is a concrete, gravity-type spillway dam. Beside international best practice, the participants will also have the occasion to visit some famous RCC dams in China in operation or under construction, such as Huangdeng RCC Gravity Dam (H=203m), Jin’anqiao RCC Gravity Dam (H=160m), Dachaoshan RCC Gravity Dam (H=115m), Dahuaqiao RCC Gravity Dam (H=107m) and etc. Wang Xiaomao, chief engineer of the Yangtze River Survey, Planning and Design Institute, introduced that the Three Gorges Project dam is a concrete gravity dam with a maximum dam height of 181 meters and a maximum dam bottom width of 126 meters. Facts About Wilson Dam • Wilson Dam was built between 1918 and 1925, a concrete gravity dam on a blue limestone rock foundation. Click here Anna University Syllabus. dam that was 11 miles long, 70 feet high, and contained approximately 17 million cubic yards of embankment was completed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the year 504 B. This infrastructure is of TYPE Hydro Power Plant with a design capacity of 16 MWe. of embankment, non-overflow masonry dam, 25 blocks of main spillway and 5 blocks of additional spillway. The most important advantage of an earth dam compared to masonry dam, is its lesser cost. is a fully reporting, next-generation agricultural biotechnology public company commercializing technologies initially developed for use by NASA astronauts to grow fresh, robust and nutrient-dense food crops in space. It should be well maintained in order to be effective and safe. Weight of Dam. Gravity dams are similar to embankment dams because they also use heavy weight and large size to exert enough force on the water, but gravity dams are made of concrete and considered more secure. Masonry dams are typically used to block. However, the Itaipu Dam took over the record by generating 103. The main advantage being that they can tolerate minor over-topping flows as the concrete is resistant to scouring. In a gravity dam, stability is secured by making it of such a size and shape that it will resist overturning, sliding and crushing at the toe. The Three Gorges Dam had become a national goal for almost 80 years and was realised upon the dam’s completion in 2009. It incorporates 28 million cubic metres (37 million cubic yards) of concrete and 463,000 metric tons of steel into its design. The Aswan Low Dam or Old Aswan Dam is a dam across the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. It is located in an 8. Their cross-section is basically triangular in order to provide adequate stability and stress distribution across the foundation plane. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 and today it provides power for various utilities in Nevada, Arizona, and California. From above the four types of dams ECRD is not considered due to non-availability of suitable core material and serious other safety issues. So let us check it out advantages and disadvantages of dams to know more about dams. The dam is an early example of the government initiative of the early 1890s, allowing local councils to raise loans for water supply purposes The dam is one of the last of its size and type designed by the NSW Dept of Public Works as a gravity wall, prior to the general adoption of curved concrete walls for small dams. Borehole gravity is especially effective for the following exploration and production purposes: Exploration purposes. 4 The US Corps of engineers method. Masonry dams are dams made out of masonry – mainly stone and brick, sometimes joined with mortar. Notable arch dams include Inguri Dam (1980), in the republic of Georgia, one of the world’s highest dams; and Kariba Dam (1959), on the Zambezi River bordering Zambia and Zimbabwe. Gravity dams are suitable in wide, low valleys with gently sloping sides. After his unsuccessful first attempt, Bayless upped the ante by setting out to build the largest concrete gravity dam in Pennsylvania. arch dam, Constant angle arch dam, Constant radius arch dam, Variable radius arch dam, Arch gravity dam, Double curvature arch dam, Buttress dams, Advantages of Buttress dams, Limitations of Buttress dams, Types of buttress dams. , reefs) for step-outs and sidetracks. Let us read some interesting and unknown facts about Sardar Sarovar Dam. Share of floodwaters to it's interior floodway. • Buttress Dam - Is a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports. Gravity essentially holds the dam down to the ground, stopping water from toppling it over. The benefits of building a dam are not just limited to this fact alone. Still the second-tallest dam overall and the tallest concrete dam, it required 91. Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and Second Highest in the world. Large over-topping. These structures can impound the floodwaters into the reservoir behind the dam, allowing us to release them under control or to store it for future use. Masonry dams are dams made out of masonry – mainly stone and brick, sometimes joined with mortar. The dam is designed as a Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) gravity dam capitalizing on the numerous advantages associated with the RCC technology. Classification of Dams. Since gravity dams must rely on their own weight to hold back water, it is necessary that they are built on a solid foundation of bedrock. The main advantage being that they can tolerate minor over-topping flows as the concrete is resistant to scouring. A dam of the pure arch type is one relying solely upon the arched form for stability. They can be constructed for very large heights. 6 million. In addition to their benefits, dams also have wide-ranging, long-term ecological and social consequences. The more recent estimate of magnitude 7. Advantages Gravity dams are specially suited to such areas where there is very heavy downpour. † It helps cement resist attack from sulfate and acid, and it helps prevent corrosion from seawater. Credit: Spanish River Authority The European Commission's new biodiversity strategy is a potential game-changer for the continent's rivers—and for all the people and nature. Watch daredevil goats defying gravity. • 83 % of dams over 15m high are earth or rock embankments and 11% are concrete gravity dams. irrigation, advantages and disadvantages of various methods, tube wells, open wells and their types. common type of concrete dam is a concrete gravity dam. Masonry dams are typically used to block. # = It has been reported that tens of thousands died in this disaster which involved the failure of a number of dams, of which Banqiao was the largest. gravity dam — noun : a dam so proportioned that it will resist overturning and sliding forces by its own weight Arch-gravity dam — Arch gravity Hoover Dam Architectural Plans An arch gravity dam. Seismic Isolation Design Example. Concrete-buttress dam, is a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports, thereby reducing material needed to construct the wall itself by using support buttresses around the outside base. This cross section eventually evolved into the common triangular cross section design of today's gravity dams. The water from the downstream pushes the dam which is resisted from toppling by the opposite force exerted by buttresses. • Bhakra Dam is across river Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh • The construction of this project was started in the year 1948 and was completed in 1963.